Sam Newsome

Sam Newsome
"The potential for the saxophone is unlimited." - Steve Lacy



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"This music is exquisite..." Bruce Gallanter, DMG

Magic Circle featured in New York Times "The Playlist"

Magic Circle featured in New York Times "The Playlist"
"...a path of twisty illogic unto itself." Giovanni Russonello, New York Times

Live at the 2017 Sopot Jazz Festival

AfroHorn @ Zinc Bar (October 2017)

Sunday, October 25, 2015

Death of the Jazz Star

When I first moved to New York, there were two main ways in which musicians made a living playing jazz: playing in the band of some famous person, or becoming a jazz star. Sometimes the previous led to the latter.

Wanting jazz stardom, as I saw it, wasn't so much about ego. Musicians weren't putting out the vibe that said, "Hey, look at me. I'm so great. I'm the best." Maybe this was true for some, but for many it was about economic survival, not ego appeasement.

Jazz stardom simply meant making a living through performing, preferably leading your own band. This is different from the Hollywood version of stardom of red carpet events, super-model girlfriends and million dollar pay checks. Being a jazz star just meant that you had regular work, made frequent appearances in jazz publications, and had won the adornment of jazz fans and critics all over the world. In an expensive and competitive city like New York, having made it could mean something as modest as not having to live with roommates. This was very much my definition during earlier years.

And I certainly wanted my shot at jazz stardom, even though I did little to facilitate it. I liked the idea of it, not the networking it took to achieve it. Just thinking about those times conjures up feelings of anxiety, anger and resentment. The amount of kissing up required was a bit much. Begging A&R reps to come to your gigs, the numerous calls made trying to get these guys on the phone; it was horrible. They were the hot chicks at the dance and we were the horny teenagers trying to get their number.

Today's young musicians seem to have less lofty aspirations. Surviving playing the music that one loves seems to satisfy most. In fact, many men and women I know have come to terms with never experiencing the joys of raising a family, owning a home, or having a nest egg to fall back on during their senior years--all for the love of music. Music has essentially become their babies. This certainly was the case for me in my 20s and most of my 30s. I often questioned whether I would ever experience the titles of husband, father, and family guy.  I was certainly prepared to use music as a surrogate for these things. I'm fortunate not having to choose one or the other.

What exactly is a jazz star? Is it he or she who is popular, sells a lot of CDs, or headlines the major festivals? Could be...or not. As I see it there are two kinds: There are those who arrive at jazz stardom through merit, and those who arrive at it through marketing. One is a byproduct of doing great work; they produce something desirable and consequently, a lot of people want it; the other is a byproduct of having out spent their contemporaries. People do want they have to offer, but mainly because they're being told to.  This was very common in the late 80s and most of the 1990s.

The problem with the latter is that it has influenced the previous. People who initially created good and sincere work began mimmicking the strategies of those who achieved it through marketing.

During this period, managers and agents had us duped into believing that we could not have a career without having a marketable story. People had totally lost faith in just doing quality work. It was really sad. And what was considered a good story was constantly changing. At one time it was being from New Orleans; then it was being able to play jazz and classical; then it was being young and black; then it was being from Cuba; then it was having a band with your brother; then it was being the son of a famous jazz musician. And it went on and on. It was everything except producing great music.  So you can see why many who rose to jazz stardom under these pretenses, eventually faded.

The jazz legends and the really creative types who had built a reputation for doing great work, began selling themselves and their audiences short when they began mimicking the marketing strategies of the aforementioned. They came away looking cliche and desperate. Their career trajectory usually looked something like this:
  • First they made a name for themselves playing their own music.
  • Then when bookings became more difficult, they began forming all-star bands.
  • When that stopped working, they put together an electric or funk project.
  • And when all else failed, they started  playing someone else's music.

You could see it coming a mile away. Consequently, many American jazz festivals nowadays are filled with either tribute bands, all-star bands, or a combination of the two. And I'm not here to bash. I can understand people needing to do what needs to be done. Get to the bandstand by any means necessary, I always say. 

Doing whatever it takes to make you and your band bookable does work short term, however, in the long term, it creates no artistic capital. And besides, this way of doing things has become somewhat irrelevant in the bigger picture. The bigger picture is being able to look back and feel good about the body of work you've left behind; a legacy of which you can be proud. A body of work others look at in reverence and go, "This person really stood for something," not, "He was a master of coming up with great promotional angles and gimmicks"

I call this the lipstick-on-a-pig approach. On the surface it looks special, but when you wipe away the red carnauba wax, the only thing left is a pig. This is classic fluff over substance, which if continued, ends in regress, not progress. Again, I applaud anyone who can be viewed as the cream of the crop in today's climate. This is no easy feat.

Today, as I see it, is the time of the artist. A time for musicians who not only have the creativity to think differently, but the courage to bring that vision to fruition. We can't continue passing off clichés with a backbeat as contemporary or progress, nor can we continue riding the wave of someone else's accomplishments. That's too easy. It's like they say, "If it sounds to good to be true, it probably is."

When I first started playing the soprano, I wanted praise just for playing it exclusively. It didn't come that easy. To get noticed, I've had to work hard, and continue to do so. Cliché tactics don't work for me. I wish they did sometimes. Trying to be creative and inventive is hard work and at times draining--more emotionally than musically.

The great thing about living in this artistically fertile and creative period is that everybody gets a chance to play the metaphorical game of jazz. Carving out a career is not reserved for the select few, and those with a marketable story. This is a good thing. New and interesting music is being explored all over the world, and those following the jazz star model of the past, become poster children for the status quo.

We don't have to completely bury the concept of the jazz star. Even with its diminishing relevance, we all should strive for jazz stardom, in some fashion. Not to feed our egos, but for the simple reason of being able to pay the bills playing our own music. And if you can walk a few red carpets and date a few super-models along the way, more power to you.


Sunday, October 18, 2015

Overtone Madness Will Prevent Sound Sadness

When saxophonists ask for suggestions on how to gain more sound flexibility--especially in the altissimo register--I often recommend the book Top-Tones for the Saxophone: Four-Octave Range by Siguard Rascher. And as great as this book is, it can be a little dry as far as melodic content--which could present a challenge to the less disciplined student--and I’m speaking from experience. When I was in in my late teens and early twenties, I definitely did not have the discipline to practice overtone exercises everyday.

And here are a couple of reasons why:

1. They’re difficult to play in the beginning, so you never feel like you’re benefitting from your efforts. As a matter of fact, many students have difficulty getting pass the third overtone when playing the overtone series. 

2. Since there is not much melodic content when just playing the overtones series, it gets kind of boring, and becomes difficult to continue playing them for any amount of time for you to reap the benefits from practicing them.

That’s when I discovered that practicing bugle calls could be a practical solution. The bugle is a valve-less brass instrument that looks similar to the trumpet, and they’re commonly played during military-related ceremonial events. Because the instrument has no valves, it is limited to the notes from the overtone series, and the only way to play the notes from the overtone series is by varying the embouchure and the airflow in the oral cavity. So I figured the repertoire written for the bugle would be ideal for the saxophone, especially the soprano.


The five note scale on which bugle calls are written is called the bugle scale, which is the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th partial of the overtone series. See Example 1: the bugle scale in the register of the bugle below.




Example 1: The bugle scale in the register of bugle



Now if you look at Example 2, you’ll see that the overtone for the saxophone is one octave above.




Example 2: The bugle scale in the register of the saxophone



Bugle Calls for Saxophone

The following are three bugles adapted for the saxophone: Taps, Assembly, and Reveille. And there are four versions of each, starting on the fundamental tones Bb1, B1, C1, and C#1. These bugle calls are fun and effective ways of working on breath support, oral cavity manipulation (speeding up and slowing down the air flow) and embouchure control (flexibility and muscles).


Taps (Exercises 1 - 4)

1. Play entire song starting on the fundamental tone Bb1 (or low Bb)



2. Play entire song starting on the fundamental tone B1 (or low B)



3. Play entire song starting on the fundamental tone C1 (or low C)


4. Play entire song starting on the fundamental tone C#1 (or low C#)




Assembly (Exercises 1 - 4)


1. Play entire song starting on the fundamental tone Bb1 (or low Bb)



2. Play entire song starting on the fundamental tone B1 (or low B)



3. Play entire song starting on the fundamental tone C1 (or low C)




4. Play entire song starting on the fundamental tone C#1 (or low C#)





Overtone Repetition Etudes 1 – 4


1. Play entire etude starting on the fundamental tone Bb1 (or low Bb)



2. Play entire etude starting on the fundamental tone B1 (or low B)



3. Play entire etude starting on the fundamental tone C1 (or low C)



4. Play entire etude starting on the fundamental tone C#1 (or low C#)

  

Overtone Triplets (Parts A and B)

The note names at the bottom of each stave represents the notes used to play the melodic content shown above. For example, measures 1 and 2 of Letter A should be played using the fingering for the low Bb, etc.






Some of these exercises might be too difficult for players with little experience in playing overtones. So I have included a few preliminary exercises that will help you in gaining a better understanding of the process on how overtones are produced. As you become more comfortable with these easier  preliminary exercises, the more difficult ones presented in the beginning of the article will become less and less daunting.


 Preliminary Exercise #1: Play all examples fingering only the fundamental tone in parenthesis.




Preliminary Exercise #2: Play all examples fingering only the fundamental tone in parenthesis.




Benefits of practicing these exercises:



  • Playing in the altissimo becomes easier
  • Increased flexibility
  • Heightened oral cavity awareness
  • A sound more rich in harmonics and overtones
  • Strengthens embouchure
  • Breath support
  • Increased endurance

And keep in mind that playing these exercises is not an exact science, so in the beginning, just even attempting them will prove beneficial. So don't get too bogged down with trying to play them perfectly. Fine tune them over time. Right now, just do what you capable of. 


One last thing: Here's a performance I did recently with vocalist Fay Victor and drummer Reggie Nicholson for the Art for Art: In Gardens Series, which features creative and improvised music around New York City.

This performance demonstrates some of the flexibility and extended range that can be achieved through mastering these exercises.  Let me know what you think.

And thanks for reading!

- Sam






Wednesday, October 14, 2015

Playing Octaves: Another Way to Tame the Beast

Playing octaves on the soprano in tune can be very challenging—particularly from the notes C#2 – F#3. With the exception of C#2, all of the notes have different fingerings between the octaves. I often equate playing octaves with doing squats in the gym. No matter how many times you do them, and no matter how strong you get, it always feels difficult to do. But we do them. Why? Because they work. You can also equate octaves with being like riding a bike uphill.  Again, an activity that does not feel good while doing it, but proves beneficial.

All of these exercises should be practiced at slow tempos. I recommend between quarter = 40 to quarter note = 60. And even though there are no articulations noted on these exercises, it’s recommended that you slur them, whenever possible.

Slurring allows you to focus on:

  • ·      Breath support
  • ·      Embouchure control, 
  • ·      Oral cavity manipulation (speeding up and slowing down the air flow)
  •     And of course practice them with a chromatic tuner.



EXERCISE 1: (Half note ascending and descending octaves moving in half steps)




EXERCISE 2: (Quarter note descending and ascending octaves moving in half steps)






EXERCISE 3: (Half note descending octaves moving in half steps)







Benefits from these exercises:

Ø  Increased flexibility
Ø  Better pitch and tone quality control between the octaves
Ø  Strengthens embouchure
Ø  Increases breath support

Good luck taming the delicate beast!




Sunday, October 4, 2015

Using Common Cents When Practicing Long Tones


This article discusses how to use a chromatic tuner when practicing long tones.
It seems like a no-brainer: You’re either in tune or you’re not. Well, yes and no. While it is true that when you play a note into a tuner that it is either in-tune, flat or sharp; there is, however, a small window of imperfection that you can work within, since we are human beings playing the instrument and not machines.

A tuner measures musical notes using a logarithmic unit of measuring intervals called cents. And the interval measured on most chromatic tuners is a semitone (or half step). For example, the distance between a C and C# is 100 cents. The 100 cents is divided into 0 to 50 (+) to measure the sharpness of the note and 0 to (-) 50 to measure the flatness of the note.

The following figure shows a semi-tone (or half step) divided in cent measurements.  When the needle of the tuner goes left of the 0 then that means that the note sounded is flat, and when the needle of the tuner goes to the right of the 0, it means that the notes sounded is sharp.




Figure 1: Cents measurement on a chromatic tuner for a semitone (or half step)


I’ve divided cents reading into three pitch cautionary zones: yellow zone, green zone, and red zone:


1. Yellow Zone: This is 0 to (-) 10 and the 0 to 10 (+) cents area. When the notes played fall within this zone, it’s very unlikely that the flatness or sharpness will be noticeable, unless you’re playing unison with another soprano player or sustaining the note for several beats. Otherwise, it’s very normal for the pitch to fluctuate within this cent vicinity.



Figure 2: The yellow alert area for the needle of a chromatic tuner


2. Green Zone: This is (-) 10 to (-) 20 and the 10 (+) to 20 (+) cents area. When the notes played fall within this zone, the flatness or sharpness of the note (s) be more noticeable--not alarming, but noticeable--unless you’re playing something really fast, or you’re going for some type of effect. And this is definitely not an area in which you want to play in unison with another instrument, especially the soprano sax.


Figure 3: The green alert area for the needle of a chromatic tuner


3. Red Zone: This is (-) 20 to (-) 50 and the 20 (+) to 50 (+) cents area. When the notes played fall within this zone, the flatness or sharpness of the note (s) become very noticeable, no matter how fast or slow they’re being played. Unless you’re playing some type of scoop or bend, in which you’ll still have to return the note to yellow zone in order for it to sound like a scoop or bend and not an out of tune note. And this is definitely not an area in which you want to play in unison with another instrument, especially the soprano sax.


Figure 4: The red alert area for the needle of a chromatic tuner


When the pitch starts to fluctuate into this zone, it usually means that the note is need of special attention, which is often caused by a problem in one or more the following areas:

Ø  Adjustment within the oral cavity
Ø  Embouchure adjustment
Ø  Mouthpiece placement on the neck of the saxophone
Ø  Reed replacement
Ø  Problems with the instrument


Benefits of practicing these exercises:

Ø Playing in the altissimo becomes easier
Ø Increased flexibility
Ø Heightened oral cavity awareness
Ø Sound becomes richer in harmonics and overtones
Ø Strengthens embouchure
Ø Better breath support
Ø Increased endurance


One last thing: Given the difficulty in playing the soprano in tune, some notes are going to be nearly impossible to play at the 0 mark of the cents reader; however, having an area of pitch leniency does allow you to strive for more attainable goals with regards to pitch accuracy. This holds particularly true in the more extreme areas of the soprano, such as low Bb to low D; and high C# to high F (or higher).

Good luck!





Please check out my book Life Lessons from the Horn and my new CD, Sopranoville.

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